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California, Oregon, Washington (COW) GLORIA sidescan sonar mosaics (white background)

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Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: United States Geological Survey
Publication_Date: 1991
Title:
cow_250m_geo_NAD27-white.tif - Composite mosaic of the California, Oregon Washington (COW) GLORIA sidescan sonar mosaics (white background)
Edition: 1.0
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: remote-sensing image
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Miscellaneous Investigations Series
Issue_Identification: I-1792
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Online_Linkage:
http://coastalmap.marine.usgs.gov/GISdata/regional/westcoast/gloria/sidescan/geo/cow_250m_geo_nad27-white.zip
Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Muriel S. Grim
Originator: Joseph M. Coddington
Originator: Russell A. Ambroziak
Originator: E.J. McFaul
Publication_Date: 1991
Title:
GLORIA imagery and bathymetry from the U.S. EEZ off Washington, Oregon, and California
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open File Report
Issue_Identification: 91-396
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: 1 CD-ROM
Description:
Abstract:
The GLORIA image of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off California, Oregon, and Washington covers about 830,000 square kilometers (sq km) of sea floor. Many geologic features visible on the imagery are representative of a tectonically active continental margin: volcanic ridges and seamounts, faults, crustal lineaments, channels, levees, slump scars, large sediment bedforms, and varying sediment types. The geologic processes active along this margin differ north and south of about latitude 40º N due to a major change in the nature of the ocean-continent plate boundary. North of latitude 40º N, the North American Plate boundary is a subduction zone; south of 40º N the plate boundary is transform.

In the north, new ocean crust forms along the Juan de Fuca spreading center, as oceanic plates move apart. This spreading center is part of the global ridge system that extends 50,000 km through all the ocean basins. The Blanco Fracture Zone accommodates the offset between the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Gorda Ridge. Cascadia Channel, a major sediment conduit, can be clearly traced from offshore central Oregon south to where it snakes through the Blanco Fracture Zone, and then heads off the mosaic to the west. The channel transports sediment from the Columbia and Fraser River systems westward more than 500 km across the Juan de Fuca and Pacific Plates. The Cascadia Subduction Zone is active along the Washington, Oregon, and northern California coasts: here the North American continental plate overrides both the Gorda and the Juan de Fuca oceanic plates, causing large earthquakes and creating the string of Cascade volcanoes in Oregon and Washington. The Mendocino Fracture Zone (MFZ) is a right-lateral transform fault that forms the boundary between the young crust of the Gorda Plate to the north and the older, more sediment-covered Pacific Plate to the south and accommodates the relative motion between these two tectonic plates.

South of latitude 40º N, the transform plate boundary is located onshore near the shoreline. The geologic features most visible in the mosaic are deep-sea fans and seamounts. Perhaps the best-studied submarine fan in the area is the Monterey Fan. The continental margin off central California has a narrow shelf and steep slope. The margin extends from the shoreline to depths of 3,000 meters. Monterey Bay is a 40-km (N-S) by 10-km (E-W) reentrant of the coastline that forms a shallow, relatively broad portion of the shelf. The continental slope seaward of Monterey Bay is incised by the large Monterey Canyon system. This canyon system feeds sediment to the Monterey Fan, which covers about 100,000 sq km of sea floor. The Monterey Fan, bounded on the north by the Farallon Fan and on the south by the Murray Fracture Zone, thins to the west, ending more than 400 km from the shoreline.

The large influx of sediment along the central California margin, which created the numerous deep-sea fans, diminishes to the south. A large number of seamounts are visible along the southern California margin draped with only a thin covering of sediment.

Purpose:
These data are intended for science researchers, students, policy makers, and the general public. The data can be used with geographic informationsystems (GIS) software to display geologic and oceanographic information.
Supplemental_Information:
Remote-sensing technologies provide a unique view of otherwise inaccessible areas, as well as powerful analytical capabilities. Most imaging techniques that we are familiar with, such as photography or satellite imaging of the earth, use reflected light as their data source. Sonar technology uses sound waves to create images called sonographs. This technology is an essential tool in the study of the deep, dark sea floor.

The first sidescan-sonar system was developed in 1960 by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (IOS) in the United Kingdom for use in shallow water. When the submarine Thresher was lost in 1963, the need for deep-water search capability became clear. In 1969 IOS introduced GLORIA (Geologic LOng Range Inclined ASDIC), the first sidescan-sonar system capable of deep-water geologic surveying. In 1977 they produced the next generation, GLORIA II, which was used to collect the imagery presented on this CD-ROM.

The GLORIA II sidescan-sonar system, used by the U.S. Geological Survey to map the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), was specifically designed to map the large-scale morphology and texture of sea-floor features in the deep ocean. To map efficiently a large area such as the EEZ, some detail had to be sacrificed. GLORIA cannot resolve human debris such as pieces of shipwrecks, but it can map an area the size of New Jersey in a single day!

Acoustic images of the sea floor are formed by aiming sound waves at the sea floor and recording the returning sound waves. These images are graphic presentations of the interaction of acoustic energy with the sea floor, not optical views of the sea floor. The GLORIA II sonar vehicle is 8 m long, weighs 2.25 tons in air, and is neutrally buoyant in sea water. This torpedo-shaped "fish" is towed at about 50 m depth behind a ship by a heavy cable containing electrical wires that transmit the signals between the ship and the fish. The electronic instruments in the fish send out a pulse of sound that travels through the water and is reflected by the sea-floor sediments. Computers aboard the ship then record the amount of energy (backscatter) that returns from the sea floor and use that data to create the image.

"Sidescan" refers to the shape of the sonar beam, which fans out to the sides and scans a wide "swath" of sea floor. The energy beam is confined to the plane perpendicular to the ship's track, forming a narrow acoustic beam in the horizontal plane and a broad beam in the vertical plane. With every sound pulse the fish emits, it images one strip of sea floor as much as 22 km wide on each side of the fish. As the ship tows the fish along its course, it insonifies successive areas of the sea floor, building a long swath of imagery pulse by pulse. The fish is towed along parallel tracklines back and forth over an area, like mowing a lawn, with a small amount of overlap between adjacent swaths. With proper navigational control, these parallel swaths of sonar imagery can be mosaicked together to produce large areas of continuous sea-floor imagery, similar to the method used in aerial photography.

The mosaic is a gray-scale image of the acoustic backscatter variations of the sea floor. The darkness or lightness of a feature on the mosaic is a function of how much sound is backscattered from the sea floor. White represents the most acoustic backscatter, and black represents the least. The amount of backscattered acoustic energy is controlled by the sea-floor topography, roughness of the sea-floor surface, and the sea-floor composition. The first-time viewer is often distracted by the dark, narrow stripes of the ship's nadir, which are non-data areas. They indicate the path of the sidescan fish, and thus the source of sonar beams; they can be ignored.

Sea-floor topography dramatically affects the amount of backscatter received by the sidescan fish. When viewed from the ship's trackline, a positive-relief feature, such as a volcano, usually appears as a bright zone (the slope facing the sonar beam) with a dark zone (the acoustic shadow) behind it. Conversely, a negative-relief feature, such as a canyon, usually appears as a dark zone (the near wall is shadowed) followed by a bright zone (the far wall is facing the sonar beam).

Hard rock ocean-floor substrates such as seamounts, volcanoes, and oceanic ridges reflect a lot of acoustic energy (high backscatter), and are recorded as bright areas on the sidescan image. Bright patterns also can be caused by certain sedimentation patterns and by steep sediment-covered slopes facing the sonar beam. Sea-floor materials such as soft mud tend to absorb much of the acoustic signal, returning very little energy (low backscatter), and appear on the image as dark areas. Dark patterns also have a variety of causes, but are commonly caused by acoustic shadows and certain variations in sediment type.

Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 1984
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned
Spatial_Domain:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -132.000003
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -116.998470
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 49.000000
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 29.999773
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: General
Theme_Keyword: United States Geological Survey
Theme_Keyword: USGS
Theme_Keyword: Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Theme_Keyword: CMGP
Theme_Keyword: Western Region Coastal and Marine Geology
Theme_Keyword: Menlo Park
Theme_Keyword: Exclusive Economic Zone
Theme_Keyword: EEZ
Theme_Keyword: GLORIA
Theme_Keyword: Geologic LOng-Range Asdic
Theme_Keyword: sidescan sonar
Theme_Keyword: side scan sonar
Theme_Keyword: composite mosaic
Theme_Keyword: continental margin
Theme_Keyword: seafloor mapping
Theme_Keyword: EEZ-SCAN 1984
Theme_Keyword: gray-scale image
Theme_Keyword: grey-scale image
Theme_Keyword: acoustic reflectivity
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: General
Place_Keyword: North America
Place_Keyword: Pacific Ocean
Place_Keyword: United States
Place_Keyword: U.S. westcoast
Place_Keyword: U.S. pacific coast
Place_Keyword: California
Place_Keyword: Oregon
Place_Keyword: Washington
Access_Constraints: None.
Use_Constraints:
Public domain data from the U.S. government are freely redistributable with proper metadata and source attribution. Please recognize the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as the source of this information.
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Florence Wong
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 345 Middlefield Road
Address: MS #999
City: Menlo Park
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 94025
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (650) 329-5327
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (650) 329-5198
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fwong@usgs.gov
Browse_Graphic:
Browse_Graphic_File_Name: cow_250m_geo_NAD27-white
Browse_Graphic_File_Description:
Overview of the California, Oregon, Washington GLORIA composite sidescan sonar mosaic.
Browse_Graphic_File_Type: GIF
Data_Set_Credit:
Image Processing Groups of the U. S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, Arizona, and Coastal and Marine Geology in Menlo Park, California, for their production of digital mosaics of the West Coast area.
Native_Data_Set_Environment:
Microsoft Windows 2000 Version 5.1 (Build 2600) Service Pack 1; ESRI ArcCatalog 8.2.0.700
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: EEZ-SCAN 84 Scientific Staff
Publication_Date: 1986
Title:
Atlas of the Exclusive Economic Zone, western conterminous United States
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Miscellaneous Investigation Series
Issue_Identification: I-1792
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details: 152 p.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Molly G. Groome
Originator: Christina E. Gutmacher
Originator: Andrew J. Stevenson
Publication_Date: 1997
Title:
Atlas of GLORIA Sidescan-Sonar Imagery of the Exclusive Economic Aone of the United States: EEZ-View
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Open File Report
Issue_Identification: 97-540
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Western Regional Coastal and Marine Geology, Menlo Park, CA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: J.S.M Rusby
Originator: M.L. Somers
Publication_Date: 1977
Title: The development of the GLORIA sonar system from 1970 to 1975
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
in M. V. Angel, (ed)., Voyage of Discovery, suppl to Deep Sea Research
Issue_Identification: Vol 24, pp. 611-625
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place:
Publisher: Elsevier
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: P.S. Chavez Jr.
Publication_Date: 1986
Title: Processing Techniques for Digital Sonar Images from GLORIA
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing
Issue_Identification: Vol 52, No. 8, August 1986, pp. 1133-1145
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Falls Church, VA 22046
Publisher: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: M.L. Somers
Originator: R.M. Carson
Originator: J.A. Revie
Originator: R.H. Edge
Originator: B.J. Barrows
Originator: A.G. Edwards
Publication_Date: 1978
Title: GLORIA II-an improved long range sidescan sonar
Series_Information:
Series_Name:
Processings of the Institute of Electrical Engineering on Offshore Instrumentation and Communications
Issue_Identification: Oceanology International Technical Session J, p.16-24
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: London, England
Publisher: BPS Publications Ltd.
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: B.A. McGregor
Publication_Date: 1988
Title: Mapping the EEZ: The first million square miles
Series_Information:
Series_Name: U.S. Geological Survey Yearbook
Issue_Identification: Fiscal Year 1987, p. 64-68
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Cross_Reference:
Citation_Information:
Originator: J.V. Gardner (editor)
Originator: M.E. Field (editor)
Originator: D.C. Twichell (editor)
Publication_Date: 1996
Title: Geology of the United States Seafloor: The View from GLORIA
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Cambridge, U.K.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Data_Quality_Information:
Logical_Consistency_Report: None
Completeness_Report:
This is a composite mosaic of the 36 California-Oregon-Washington (COW) GLORIA digital mosaics created by the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Western Region Coastal and Marine Geology. This composite image provides an overview of the combined mosaics at a pixel resolution of 250 m.
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
GLORIA sidescan sonar data were collected and recorded digitally in data files comprising 6 hours or less of data (swaths). These files were later processed to correct for geometric distortions in the data are: (1) water-column offset; (2) slant-range geometry; (3) aspect or anamorphic ratio distortion; and (4) changes in the ship's speed.

The swath files were further processed to apply four radiometric corrections. These corrections included: (1) a shading correction for the attenuation of the sonar energy in water as a function of range; (2) a power correction for very near nadir because of slow buildup; (3) speckle-noise correction; and (4) removal of striping noise.

Process_Date: Unknown
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Western Region Coastal and Marine Geology
Address: 345 Middlefield Road
City: Menlo Park
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 94025
Country: USA
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The processed GLORIA data swaths were digitally mosaicked into 2-degree by 2-degree quadrangles at 50 meter resolution and in a Transverse Mercator projection. This procedure entailed taking individual straight line segments of image data and removing the header information at the beginning of each scan line record, tone stretching the data to ensure homogeneity with other line segments in the quadrangle, and running the stretched data through transformation and geometric programs to locate the line segment's position and orient it within the quadrangle space. The line segment was then mosaicked together with other image files into that space. Finally, because there was intentional overlap of data between line segments, the overlapping data of lesser quality were cut and discarded using a digital process called stenciling. This process was repeated multiple times for each quadrangle depending on the number of line segments lying within each quadrangle's coordinates.
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Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Western Region Coastal and Marine Geology
Address: 345 Middlefield Road
City: Menlo Park
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 94025
Country: USA
Process_Step:
Process_Description: The images were converted to Arc/Info 'BIL' files.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: cowq01.img
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: cowq01.bil
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Florence L. Wong
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 345 Middlefield Road
Address: MS # 999
City: Menlo Park
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 94025
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (650) 329-5327
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (650) 329-5198
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: fwong@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The Arc/Info 'BIL' files were converted to GeoTIFF images. Georeferencing information for each 2 degree quadrangle was encoded into the file.
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Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Valerie Paskevich
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Information Specialist / GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2281
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vpaskevich@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The individual GLORIA GeoTiff mosaics were compiled into a 250 meter composite mosaic overview of the California, Oregon, Washington in their original Transverse Mercator projection
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Process_Date: 20030930
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: cow_250m_tm_NAD27.pix
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Valerie Paskevich
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Information Specialist / GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2281
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vpaskevich@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The Transverse Mercator mosaic composite overview was reprojected to geographic.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: cow_250m_tm_NAD27.pix
Process_Date: 20030930
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: cow_250m_geo_NAD27.pix
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Valerie Paskevich
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Information Specialist / GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2281
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vpaskevich@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The image was exported from the PCI Remote sensing format file (pix) to a GeoTIFF format.
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: cow_250m_geo_NAD27.pix
Process_Date: 20030930
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: cow_250m_geo_NAD27-black.tif
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Valerie Paskevich
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Information Specialist / GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2281
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vpaskevich@usgs.gov
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The black background surrounding the GLORIA mosaic was flood filled to white. The Georeferencing information was then recreated in the header of the GeoTiff Image
Source_Used_Citation_Abbreviation: cow_250m_geo_NAD27-black.tif
Source_Produced_Citation_Abbreviation: cow_250m_geo_NAD27-white.tif
Process_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Valerie Paskevich
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Position: Information Specialist / GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2281
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vpaskevich@usgs.gov

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:
Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster
Raster_Object_Information:
Raster_Object_Type: Pixel
Row_Count: 8451
Column_Count: 5093
Vertical_Count: 1

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Planar:
Planar_Coordinate_Information:
Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column
Coordinate_Representation:
Abscissa_Resolution: 0.002946
Ordinate_Resolution: 0.002248
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927
Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866
Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698

Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: There are no attributes associated with the GEOTIFF image.

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: Western Region Coastal and Marine Geology
Address: 345 Middlefield Road
City: Menlo Park
State_or_Province: CA
Postal_Code: 94025
Country: USA
Resource_Description: Downloadable Data
Distribution_Liability:
Although this data set has been used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS as to the accuracy of the data and/or related materials. The act of distribution shall not constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the USGS in the use of these data or related materials.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Transfer_Size: 0.000
Technical_Prerequisites:
The sidescan sonar mosaic is available as a GEOTIFF image with accompanying world file and georeference report. To utilize this data, the user must have an image viewer, image processing or GIS software package capable of importing a GEOTIFF image. If the georeferencing information cannot be imported, the user may wish to obtain the georeference information contained in a separate file, georep.txt, included in the zip file.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20040205
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: U.S. Geological Survey
Contact_Person: Valerie Paskevich
Contact_Position: Information Specialist / GIS Coordinator
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 384 Woods Hole Road
City: Woods Hole
State_or_Province: MA
Postal_Code: 02543-1598
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (508) 548-8700 x2281
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (508) 457-2310
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: vpaskevich@usgs.gov
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Metadata_Use_Constraints: None
Metadata_Extensions:
Online_Linkage: <http://www.esri.com/metadata/esriprof80.html>
Profile_Name: ESRI Metadata Profile

Generated by mp version 2.7.3 on Thu Feb 05 18:26:47 2004